- Acronym for Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills, part of a theory of language proficiency developed by Jim Cummins (1984), which distinguishes BICS from CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency). BICS is often referred to as "playground English" or "survival English." It is the basic language ability required for face-to-face communication where linguistic interactions are embedded in a situational context (see context-embedded language). This language, which is highly contextualized and often accompanied by gestures, is relatively undemanding cognitively and relies on the context to aid understanding. BICS is much more easily and quickly acquired than CALP, but is not sufficient to meet the cognitive and linguistic demands of an academic classroom. (Cummins, 1984; Baker & Jones, 1998).
- Beginning Teacher
- As defined in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001:
The term beginning teacher' means a teacher in a public school who has been teaching less than a total of three complete school years.
- Identifying with the cultures of two different language groups. To be bicultural is not necessarily the same as being bilingual, and vice-versa (Baker, 2000).
- Bilingual Education
- An educational program in which two languages are used to provide content matter instruction. As with the term bilingualism, bilingual education is "a simple label for a complex phenomenon." An important distinction is between those programs that use and promote two languages and those where bilingual children are present, but bilingualism is not fostered in the curriculum (Baker & Jones, 1998).
- Bilingual Education Act
- Enacted in Congress in 1968 as Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 as amended. It established a discretionary competitive grant program to fund bilingual education programs for economically disadvantaged language minority students, in recognition of the unique educational disadvantages faced by non-English speaking students. The Act was reauthorized in 1974, 1978, 1984, 1988, and 1994. Each reauthorization brought changes in the types of bilingual education programs that could receive federal grants (Crawford, 1995; Baker, 2001). Under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, former Title VII programs are now subsumed under Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students.
- Put simply, bilingualism is the ability to use two languages. However, defining bilingualism is problematic since individuals with varying bilingual characteristics may be classified as bilingual. There may exist distinctions between ability and use of a language; variation in proficiency across the four language dimensions (listening, speaking, reading and writing); differences in proficiency between the two languages; variation in proficiency due to the use of each language for different functions and purposes; and variation in language proficiency over time (Baker & Jones, 1998). People may become bilingual either by acquiring two languages at the same time in childhood or by learning a second language sometime after acquiring their first language.
- The ability to effectively communicate or understand thoughts and ideas through two languages' grammatical systems and vocabulary, using their written symbols (Hargett, 1998).
- The repeated intimidation of others by the real or threatened
infliction of physical, verbal, written, electronically transmitted, or
emotional abuse, or through attacks on the property of another. It may include,
but not be limited to actions such as verbal taunts, name-calling and put downs,
including ethnically-based or gender-based verbal put downs, and extortion of
money or possessions.