- alternative language program
- A summary of the paper, usually between 100 and 500 words, that describes the most important aspects of the study including: the problem investigated, the subjects and instruments involved, the design and procedures, and the major conclusions.
- Abusive/Profane Language
- The act of uttering distasteful, offensive language for the purpose of debasing the dignity of another person.
- Adapting language (spoken or written) to make it more understandable to second language learners. In assessment, accommodations may be made to the presentation, response method, setting, or timing/scheduling of the assessment (Baker, 2000; Rivera & Stansfield, 2000).
- Additive Bilingualism
- One of two contextual concepts which explain the possible outcomes of second language learning. Additive bilingualism occurs in an environment in which the addition of a second language and culture does not replace the first language and culture; rather, the first language/culture are promoted and developed, such as in dual language programs or developmental bilingual education programs. Additive bilingualism is linked to high self-esteem, increased cognitive flexibility, and higher levels of proficiency in L2 (Baker, 2000). The opposite of subtractive bilingualism.
- Affective filter
- Associated with Krashen's Monitor Model of second language learning, the affective filter is a metaphor that describes a learner's attitudes that affect the relative success of second language acquisition. Negative feelings such as lack of motivation, lack of self-confidence and learning anxiety act as filters that hinder and obstruct language learning (Baker, 2000).
- An achievement test, in Spanish, that generally matches the objectives of the Stanford Achievement Tests (SAT 9). Aprenda has several forms, covering pre-primer, primary, and intermediate grades. Different forms provide different coverage according to their grade levels, but in general, Aprenda measures reading, language arts, and mathematics (Hargett, 1998).
- Audiolingual approach
- A behavioristic approach to language learning, which stems from the belief that the ability to make a sound or use correct grammar is an automatic, unconscious act. Instruction is teacher-centered and makes use of drills and dialogue. Vocabulary and sentence patterns are carefully graded and introduced in a sequence, skills of listening and speaking are introduced before reading and writing, and emphasis is placed on accuracy of pronunciation and grammar. The aim is for the learner to gain an automatic, accurate control of basic sentence structures, sounds, and vocabulary. The approach was very popular in the 1950s and 60s, but its use has declined in favor of the communicative approach (Baker & Jones, 1998).
- Average Daily Attendance
- As defined in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
(A) IN GENERAL- Except as provided otherwise by State law or this paragraph, the term average daily attendance' means —
(i) the aggregate number of days of attendance of all students during a school year; divided by
(ii) the number of days school is in session during that year.
(B) CONVERSION- The Secretary shall permit the conversion of average daily membership (or other similar data) to average daily attendance for local educational agencies in States that provide State aid to local educational agencies on the basis of average daily membership (or other similar data).
(C) SPECIAL RULE- If the local educational agency in which a child resides makes a tuition or other payment for the free public education of the child in a school located in another school district, the Secretary shall, for the purpose of this Act —
(i) consider the child to be in attendance at a school of the agency making the payment; and
(ii) not consider the child to be in attendance at a school of the agency receiving the payment.
(D) CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES- If a local educational agency makes a tuition payment to a private school or to a public school of another local educational agency for a child with a disability, as defined in section 602 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the Secretary shall, for the purpose of this Act, consider the child to be in attendance at a school of the agency making the payment.
- Average Per-pupil Expenditure
- As defined in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
The term average per-pupil expenditure' means, in the case of a State or of the United States —
(A) without regard to the source of funds —
(i) the aggregate current expenditures, during the third fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which the determination is made (or, if satisfactory data for that year are not available, during the most recent preceding fiscal year for which satisfactory data are available) of all local educational agencies in the State or, in the case of the United States, for all States (which, for the purpose of this paragraph, means the 50 States and the District of Columbia); plus
(ii) any direct current expenditures by the State for the operation of those agencies; divided by
(B) the aggregate number of children in average daily attendance to whom those agencies provided free public education during that preceding year.